Cooling Tower Water Treatment
Cooling is the process of thermal energy transfer via thermal radiation, heat conduction or convection.
There are several factors reduce cooling tower less efficiency:
When insoluble materials, like calcium carbonate, calcium phosphate, magnesium salts and silica, precipitate out of cooling water, they form solid deposits called scale. Scaling may be promoted by variations in pH, temperature, alkalinity, and concentration of scale-forming constituents in water.
Most metals used in cooling tower systems are very susceptible to corrosion. Surfaces must be kept clean to prevent under-deposit corrosion, which can lead to system failures. Scaling may be promoted by variations in pH, temperature, alkalinity, and concentration of scale-forming constituents in water.
Cooling Tower Blowdown Control
Measuring and controlling conductivity allows accurate calculation of blowdown quantities and timing. Measuring and maintaining conductivity is critical, because poor blowdown control may lead to:
Scaling and corrosion (when conductivity is too high) or
Wasted resources, including water and cooling tower chemicals (when the system could tolerate higher conductivity feed water)
The most important instrumentation control parameters in cooling tower water treatment are Conductivity and pH. Additional water quality parameters that should be measured online or sampled frequently include turbidity, total suspended solids (TSS), free chlorine, and oxidation reduction potential (ORP).
What are the chemical limits being used for water chemistry monitoring :
Boiler water treatment
A boiler or steam generator is a device used to create steam by applying heat energy to water. Boilers and condensers are very sensitive to corrosion and fouling.
Continuous measurement and control of critical water parameters conserves energy and treatment chemicals by eliminating excessive blowdown going to waste. They also help minimize corrosion and ensure the highest water purity also safety.
The treatment and conditioning of boiler feed water must satisfy three main objectives:
Continuous heat exchange
Production of high quality steam
Note: ASME Guidelines for Water Quality in Modern Industrial Water Tube Boilers for Reliable Continuous Operation:
Boiler Feed Water monitoring parameters:
Boiler Water Drum Pressure (psi)
Iron (ppm Fe) Copper (ppm Cu)
Total Hardness (ppm CaCO3)
Silica (ppm SiO2)
Total Alkalinity** (ppm CaCO3)